Travel to Sri Lanka’s ancient Buddhist sites, temples, local markets, historical ruins, all of which speak of its unparalleled rich cultural heritage dating back to as early as the 2nd century BC. " Abhayagiri appears to have been a centre for Mahayana and Vajrayana teachings; Xuanzang writes, "The Mahāvihāravāsins reject the Mahāyāna and practice the Hīnayāna, while the Abhayagirivihāravāsins study both Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna teachings and propagate the Tripiṭaka. sales and support: +94 11 273 4256 +94 11 272 6234. firstname.lastname@example.org Pidurangala Royal Cave Temple (Sigiriya) Pidurangala is located right in front of the more famous … 11 Beautiful Temples In Sri Lanka You Absolutely Have To Visit Temple of the Tooth (Kandy) Locally known as Sri Dalada Maligawache, the Temple of the Tooth is thought to be one of the holiest places in Sri Lanka and it’s the main reason why tourists and locals alike go to Kandy. Contact the seller- opens in a new window or … Sri Lanka Tourism organizes interesting cultural activities at major Buddhist heritage sites. Sri Lanka is the oldest continually Buddhist country. Olcott agitated for Buddhist civil rights, wrote a Buddhist Catechism still in use today, and founded several schools. India on Saturday announced a grant assistance of $15 million for the promotion of Buddhist ties with Sri Lanka besides affirming to expand defence partnership eyeing to stabilise the Southern Indian Ocean. [full citation needed] In 1996 through the efforts of Sakyadhita, an International Buddhist Women Association, Theravada bhikkhuni order was revived when 11 Sri Lankan women received full ordination in Sarnath, India, in a procedure held by Ven. There was a substantial Buddhist Sanskrit literature, such as Lalitavistara and many Mahayana writers such as Asvaghosa, (2 cent AD). Even though Sri Lanka has an only minor community with Hundusim as their religion, Sri Lanka is being a country for Hindu pilgrims for many centuries. Religious teachings infuse people with optimism. In the 5th century, the great Indian scholar Buddhaghosa came to Ceylon to study and write his famous commentaries. Breaking News. Sri Lanka comprises a Buddhist majority and people respect religion above all. Sri Lanka has had more than its share of upheavals since. The Buddhist revival also resulted in Sinhala Buddhists carrying the torch of Buddhism and igniting it on foreign shores. Theravada Buddhism is the largest, oldest and Official religion of Sri Lanka practiced by 70.19% of Sri Lanka's population as of 2012. Arahath Mahinda, son of Indian Buddhist emperor Ashoka, led the mission to Sri Lanka in 246 BCE when he converted the Sri Lankan king, Devanampiya Tissa, to Buddhism. She started the first nun's order in Sri Lanka, but this order of nuns died out in Sri Lanka in the 11th century. [full citation needed] Since 2005, many ordination ceremonies for women have been organized by the head of the Dambulla chapter of the Siyam Nikaya in Sri Lanka. Buddhism encompasses a significant part of the culture and history of Sri Lanka, which is why numerous Buddhist temples are seen throughout the country. Practitioners of Buddhism can be found amongst the Sinhalese population as well as the Tamil population. Sri Lanka for Western Buddhist lay practitioners.’’ Factors such as climate, food, noise, standards of Discipline (Vinaya), and accessibility have been taken into consideration with regards the places listed. Faxian obtained a Sanskrit copy of the Vinaya of the Mahīśāsaka at the Abhayagiri vihāra c. 406. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site with over 80 caves in the location. For several centuries Buddhism flourished in Ceylon. When Buddhism spread beyond India, the first nations in which it took root were Gandhara and Ceylon, now called Sri Lanka. Available: "A3 : Population by religion according to districts, 2012", Table A4: Population by district, religion and sex, http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/perera/wheel100.html, "Art & Archaeology – Sri Lanka – Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara", Weliwita Sri Saranankara Theroenerable Weliwita Sri Saranankara Mahathera, Buddhists must safeguard religion, Sangha – Thera, "Keeping track of the revival of bhikkhuni ordination in Sri Lanka", Sri Lanka’s admirable Buddhist missionary achievements in the West, Mahamevnawa Buddhist Monastery - Sri Lanka, Colonel Olcott and the Buddhist Revival In Sri Lanka, The Dhamma proclaimed by the Gautama Buddha, Buddhist and Pali University of Sri Lanka, Basic points unifying Theravāda and Mahāyāna, Prison Reforms, Rehabilitation, Resettlement and Hindu Religious Affairs, Tourism Development and Christian Religious Affairs, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Buddhism_in_Sri_Lanka&oldid=990989649, Articles with incomplete citations from September 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Devotees from all around the world visit Sri Lanka to commemorate his life and teachings.  This translation of the Mahīśāsaka Vinaya remains extant in the Chinese Buddhist canon as Taishō Tripiṭaka 1421.. In Pali commentaries, terms used for the Mahayanins of Abhayagiri were Vaitulya, Vaipulya and Vaidalya. Until I discovered Buddhist Hell, deep in the South of Sri Lanka, I figured that Buddhist temples were full of kind, enlightened, robe-wearing folks, living out their days on this world performing good deeds and racking up good karma.From a Western perspective brand-Buddhism is pacifism, … Missionaries also wrote tracts in Sinhalese attacking Buddhism and promoting Christianity. One of the first western bhikkhus, Nyanatiloka Mahathera studied in Sri Lanka, established the Island Hermitage there and ordained several western monks. Since the Buddhist revival, Sri Lanka has also been an important centre of Western Buddhist scholarship. Beijing’s billion-dollar loan to Colombo for a major infrastructure project is the latest example of battle for influence in Southeast Asia’s Buddhist countries. The place where the monastery is gives a good indication about its climate. * Buddhist prelates emphasize the need for a new constitution Tue, Oct 20, 2020, 09:31 am SL Time, ColomboPage News Desk, Sri Lanka.  Northern regions of Sri Lanka also seem to have been ceded to sects from India at certain times. They also held that nothing whatever given to the Order bears fruit, for the Sangha, which in the ultimate sense of the term meant only the path and fruition, does not accept anything. However, the Sinhalese discovered that under Dutch rule there were advantages to becoming Christian; Christians had higher civil status, for example. They pioneered the establishment of Buddhist Viharas in Europe. Soon the King and his court were converted. Get it Now. Another important figure in the revival is Anagarika Dharmapala, initially an interpreter for Olcott, who travelled around the island preaching and writing. In 1815 a British army captured Kandy and deposed the Sinhalese king ending a line of Buddhist kings lasting 2301 years, they retained Sri Lanka until 1948. Sri Lanka has the longest continuous history of Buddhism of any Buddhist nation, with the Sangha having existed in a largely unbroken lineage since its introduction in the 3rd century BCE. In the 19th century, a national Buddhist movement began as a response to Christian proselytizing, and was empowered by the results of the Panadura debate between Christian priests and Buddhist monks such as Migettuwatte Gunananda Thera and Hikkaduwe Sri Sumangala Thera which was widely seen as a victory for the Buddhists. Sri Lanka International Buddhist Academy (SIBA Campus) Higher Educational Institute of Sri Dalada Maligawa. The compilation of the Atthakatha (commentaries) along with the Nikāyas and other Pitakas were committed to writing for the first time in the Aluvihare Rock Temple during the first century BCE. Sri Lanka's documented history spans 3,000 years, with evidence of prehistoric human settlements dating back at least 125,000 years. Sri Lanka - Sri Lanka - Conversion to Buddhism: According to Sinhalese tradition, Buddhism was first brought to Sri Lanka by a mission sent out from eastern India during the reign of the Mauryan emperor Ashoka (c. 273–232 bce). ), This page was last edited on 27 November 2020, at 17:48. Buddhist leaders were also active in the movement for Sri Lankan independence. During this period, Sri Lankan Buddhist literature thrived once again and the three greats writers Mahākassapa Thera of Dimbulagala Raja Maha Vihara, Moggallana Thera and Sāriputta Thera compiled Pali commentaries and sub-commentaries. Fax +94 … From the 12th through 14th centuries Buddhism regained much of its former energy and influence. According to them, any human pair may enter upon sexual intercourse by mutual consent. Ornately decorated elephants are a major attraction in Sri Lankan Buddhist pageants. Olcott also traveled throughout Ceylon, sometimes in the company of Gunananda, distributing pro-Buddhist, anti-Christian tracts. Soon Christian missionaries were pouring into Ceylon. There are around 6,000 Buddhist monasteries on Sri Lanka with approximately 15,000 monks.. During the 19th century, a modern Buddhist revival took place on the island which promoted Buddhist education and learning. Buddhism was introduced to the country back in the third century BCE. Arhat Mahinda was directly linked to Arhat Upali who had presided over the first Buddhist Council. They also inserted Buddhism into the constitution: “The Republic of Sri L… But most Sanskrit Mahayana texts are in fragments today.  Buddhist literature in Sinhalese also thrived and by 410, Sri Lankan monks travelled widely throughout India and Asia introducing their works. Buddhism is at the heart of cultural holidays in Sri Lanka, whether you are visiting the ancient sites of the great Sinhalese Kings who brought Buddhism here, or visiting a contemporary temple or monastery. Then it faced its greatest challenge -- Europeans. , History and demographics of Buddhism in Sri Lanka, formerly Ceylon, "Census of Population and Housing of Sri Lanka, 2012 –. Sri Lanka’s capital Colombo is the best place to experience this festival. Buddhist architecture in Sri Lanka Cave temples The earliest evidence of rudimentary cave temples are found in Mihintale, a unique feature in these caves was the use of a drip ledge carved along the top edge of the rock ceiling which stopped rain water running into … The sublime words of the Buddha, generate peace of mind and tranquility and the content focuses on the philosophical aspects of the Dhamma. Wesak is the most revered festival among the Buddhists of Sri Lanka. This warfare saw the sacking of viharas and made the situation difficult for Buddhism. The wars with the Portuguese and their allies weakened the Sangha. Throughout most of its history, Sri Lankan kings have played a major role in the maintenance and revival of the Buddhist institutions of the island. Relics of an extensive cult of Avalokiteśvara can be seen in the present-day figure of Nātha. Sri Lanka has about 6,000 Buddhist monasteries with about 15,000 monks.  The trend of Abhayagiri being the dominant sect changed in the 12th century when the Maha Viharaya gained the political support of Parakramabahu I (1153–1186), who completely abolished the Abhayagiri and Jetavanaya traditions. There are no doctrinal differences among any of them. As a result of their efforts, Vesak became a public holiday, Buddhist registrars of marriage were allowed, and interest in Buddhism increased. The temple is located within the old Palace complex. When he chose Buddhism over Christianity, he took the name Dharmapala, which means "protector of the dharma," and the title Anagarika, "homeless one." According to traditional Sri Lankan chronicles such as the Dipavamsa, Buddhism was introduced into Sri Lanka in the third century BCE after the Third Buddhist council by Arhanthà Mahinda thero, son of Emperor Ashoka, during the reign of Devanampiya Tissa of Anuradhapura. This item will ship to United States, but the seller has not specified shipping options. According to chronicles, Buddhism was introduced into Sri Lanka somewhere in the 3rd century BCE by Mahinda Thera who was the son of Emperor Ashoka. Sri Lanka Buddhist. Tessa Bartholomeusz: First Among Equals: Buddhism and the Sri Lankan State, in: Ian Harris (ed. This created form and Ānanda, who learned from it, preached the doctrine. There is no point in complaining (about this)”. Since Buddhism eventually died out in India and Gandhara, it can be argued that the oldest living Buddhist tradition today is found in Sri Lanka. There was a substantial Buddhist Sanskrit literature, such as Lalitavistara and many Mahayana writers such as Asvaghosa, (2 cent AD). Sri Dalada Maligawa. To the Buddhists of Ceylon, Gunananda was the hands-down winner each time. The Mahīśāsaka Vinaya was then translated into Chinese in 434 by Buddhajiva and Zhu Daosheng. Gunananda was well prepared. He did not take full monastic vows but lived the eight Uposatha vows daily for the rest of his life. The British also supported various Christian missionary groups who established schools on the island. When we visited, we needed to go through a rigorous security checkpoint due to the bombing by the Tamil Tigers on January 25, 1998. The days of Sri Lanka’s Buddhist kings and their monk advisers ended in the early 1800s with their defeat by the British, who ruled until independence in 1948. On the pilgrim telling them of his intended visit to Ceylon for instruction, they told him that there were no Brethren there superior to them. India on Saturday announced a $15 million grant to Sri Lanka, in a major push strengthen Buddhist cultural link between New Delhi and Colombo. The death was initially suspected murder. Warder, the Indian Mahīśāsaka established itself in Sri Lanka alongside the Theravadas into which they were later absorbed. This dogma espouses the notion that Sri Lanka is … Other Buddhist Resources in Sri Lanka. sri Lanka is the place where theravada Buddhist philosophy is most practically used in the world. However, after meeting Sri Lankan monks in the Chola capital who were refugees, he decided not to visit: At the time of Hiuen Tsang's visit the capital was visited by 300 Bhikshus of Ceylon who had left the island in consequence of famine and revolution there. Starting of Buddhist Culture in Sri Lanka. The BBS, an extremist Sinhala nationalist group, has stoked animosity against both Tamils and Muslims in recent years with leaders accused of openly engaging in hate speech. He had arrived in the island during the reign of King Devanampiya Tissa who was residing in Anuradhapura. He was particularly sensitive to the way Buddhism was being presented in the West.  His efforts saw the restoration of these sites and a renewal of interest in Buddhism among some Indians. According to HR Perera, the Theravada commentaries considered them heretical and their doctrines included: They held the view that the Buddha, having been born in the Tusita heaven, lived there and never came down to earth and it was only a created form that appeared among men. ... Sri Lanka is more than 70 percent Buddhist. When Buddhism spread beyond India, the first nations in which it took root were Gandhara and Ceylon, now called Sri Lanka. ‘Dutch Buddhist murdered in Sri Lanka’ – Telegraaf.nl Dharmapala influenced much of the West's impression of Buddhism. Ayoma Wasalathanthri, 53, a Buddhist laywoman from Pannala, said elderly monks struggle to find money for their medication. Or just meeting local people, with over 90 per cent of Sri Lankans being Buddhist. Arahant Mahinda: Greatest Buddhist Missionary to Sri Lanka By Dr. Ari Ubeysekara Introduction Lord Gautama Buddha, who lived and preached in India during the sixth and fifth century BC, passed away in 483 BC aged eighty years. The final rite of Chief Prelate Ven. , In the 7th century, Xuanzang wrote of two major divisions of Theravada Buddhism in Sri Lanka, referring to the Abhayagiri tradition as the "Mahayana Sthaviras" and the Mahāvihāra tradition as the "Hinayana Sthaviras. As a result of the work of Buddhaghosa and other compilers such as Dhammapala, Sri Lanka developed a strong tradition of the written textual transmission of the Pali Canon. This article will look at how Buddhism came to Sri Lanka, once called Ceylon; how it was challenged by European missionaries; and how it was revived. Over much of the early history of Buddhism in Sri Lanka, three subdivisions of Theravāda existed in Sri Lanka, consisting of the monks of the three mahaviharas: Anuradhapura Maha Viharaya, Abhayagiri vihāra and Jetavanaramaya. (2009). Education in these schools (which disparaged Buddhism) was a requirement for government office. The missionaries opened schools throughout the island to convert the people of Ceylon from their "idolatry.". [full citation needed]. The death was initially suspected murder.  The king oversaw the ordination of thousands of monks. The war had numerous causes, but prominent among them were government moves to embrace religious nationalism. The Dambulla Cave Temple, also known as the Golden Temple of Dambulla, is the largest and best-preserved cave temple complex in Sri Lanka. Since Buddhism eventually died out in India and Gandhara, it can be argued that the oldest living Buddhist tradition today is found in Sri Lanka. Beginning in the 6th century, however, political instability within Ceylon combined with invasions by the Tamils of southern India caused support for Buddhism to decline. This was the first Theravada Buddhist Vihara in Germany and continental Europe. He had already been traveling around the island nation calling for a return to Buddhism and attracting thousands of rapt listeners. Theravada Buddhism is the official religion of Sri Lanka, with about 70.2% of the country's population as followers. Sri Lanka had also preserved the Buddhist canon, the Pitakas, in Pali. Among these, the Isurumuniya and the Vessagiriya remain important centres of worship. The Buddhist temples in the country has beautiful decoration and Wesak paper lanterns are hung everywhere. He is also credited with the construction of the Pathamaka cetiya, the Jambukola vihāra and the Hatthālhaka vihāra and the refectory. L ike me, you may have assumed Buddhism was such a happy religion. Without waiting for a reaction from King Tissa, the Emperor sent his son Mahinda and his daughter Sanghamitta -- a monk and a nun -- to Tissa's court. They destroyed monasteries, libraries, and art. In Myanmar, as in Sri Lanka – where Muslims have been accused of manufacturing underwear that makes Buddhist women infertile or of sprinkling … Sri Lanka has a long history of ethnic conflicts. Revivalist Buddhist scholars include Sir D. B. Jayatilaka, F. R. Senanayake, Walisinghe Harischandra and W. A. de Silva. Perera, HR, Buddhism in Sri Lanka A Short History, 2007. Arahant Mahinda: Greatest Buddhist Missionary to Sri Lanka By Dr. Ari Ubeysekara Introduction Lord Gautama Buddha, who lived and preached in India during the sixth and fifth century BC, passed away in 483 BC aged eighty years. By then the Buddha’s dispensation was well established in a considerable area of India with vast numbers of… In fact, Sri Lanka as a whole is a Buddhist Sinhala country. A few years after the arrival of Mahinda, Bhikkhuni Sanghamitta, who is also believed to be the daughter of Emperor Ashoka came to Sri Lanka. Western monks who studied in the island hermitage such as Nanamoli Bhikkhu and Ven. In 1880 Gunananda was joined by an unlikely partner -- Henry Steel Olcott (1832-1907), a New York customs lawyer who had given up his practice to seek the wisdom of the East. READ MORE Has Buddhism got a word on fake news? Three police teams of Sri Lanka are investigating the death of a Dutch national Buddhist monk who was meditating in a Theravada Buddhist monastery in Sri Lanka. In 1893 he traveled to Chicago to the World Parliament of Religions and presented a paper on Buddhism that emphasized Buddhism's harmony with science and rational thinking. The Pali Canon was first written in Ceylon. Programmes are televised and transmitted throughout the day and night, from the studios at Sri Sambodhi Viharaya, which is situated at Gregory's Road, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka. Dharmapala joined the Theosophical Society that had been founded by Olcott and his partner, Helena Petrovna Blavatsky, and became a translator for Olcott and Blavatsky. When the spread and establishment of Buddhist philosophy or concept in the world is observed, it is evident that sri Lanka secures a prominent place. The leader of the mission to Sri Lanka, Mahendra (Mahinda), is described as Ashoka’s son. , Early reports by Europeans from the 18th century describe the Buddhist monks of Sri Lanka as being engaged in the recitation of mantras and using Buddhist prayer beads for counting as practiced in Mahayana Buddhism.. She gave the nun ordinance to women devotees. Nilambe Buddhist Meditation Centre, Nilambe, Sri Lanka ☸️ Triple Gem of the North212 N Chestnut St, Chaska, MN 55318, U.S.A.☸️ The Metta Meditation Center3864 – 420th Avenue Janesville, MN 56048, U.S.A. SLBM© 2020. By the 19th century, Buddhist institutions in Ceylon were moribund, and the people were largely ignorant of the spiritual tradition of their ancestors.  Several Buddhist shrines were also rebuilt. Sri Lanka is the oldest continually Buddhist country, Theravada Buddhism being the major religion in the island since its official introduction in the 2nd century BC by Venerable Mahinda, the son of the Emperor Ashoka of India during the reign of King Devanampiya- Tissa. Buddhism & cultural tourism in Sri Lanka. Fax : +94 11 2 689 308 - TV & Radio +94 11 2 689 306 - News History of Buddhism in China: The First Thousand Years, Early Buddhist History: The First Five Centuries, Padmasambhava the Precious Guru of Tibetan Buddhism, Ten Famous Buddhas: Where They Came From; What They Represent, Eight Dharmapalas: The Protectors of Buddhism. The state of Sri Lankan Buddhism was so bad at this time that he could not find five bhikkhus in the whole island to ordain more monks and restore the monastic tradition; therefore, he sent an embassy to Burma, which sent back several eminent elders with Buddhist texts. Pahiyangala cave derives its name from a famous Chinese Mahayana Buddhist traveller monk Fa-Hien who chanced upon the cave and made it a temporary resting place while on his way to Sri Pada (Adam’s Peak) during a visit to the Island in 600 A.D. At over 150 feet in height and 282 feet long. The great Sinhala Buddhist hydraulic civilization of Sri Lanka collapsed, and the Sinhalese abandoned the north central plains and migrated, en masse, to the south west and the central hills of the country. In 1883, Olcott was joined by a young Sinhalese man who had taken the name Anagarika Dharmapala. Sri Lankans including Catholic leaders are mourning the death of a prominent Buddhist monk who dedicated his life to disseminating Buddhism and national unity. Anagarika Dharmapala and Asoka Weeraratna are two such leading pioneers among many others. After they won independence from Britain in 1948, Sri Lanka’s politicians started to enforce the use of the Sinhala language across the country’s public institutions, making it the official language. Institute for Buddhist Studies (Dhammaratna Memorial Meditation & Foreign Languages) Tel: 034-6131 According to some accounts -- possibly exaggerated -- when the Portuguese finally were expelled from Ceylon in 1658 only five fully ordained monks remained. Arahath Sanghamitra, daughter of King Ashoka, brought a sapling of the Bodhi tree in Buddha Gaya to Sri Lanka. The principle of non-violence is central to Buddhist teachings, but in Sri Lanka some Buddhist monks are being accused of stirring up hostility towards other faiths and ethnic minorities. See also the Milinda Panha. , Veneration of Avalokiteśvara has continued to the present day in Sri Lanka, where he is called Nātha. One noteworthy temple is the Temple of the Tooth in Kandy, which is home to the sacred tooth relic of Lord Buddha himself. The Sri Sambodhi Viharaya was established to disseminate the Dhamma and to create an awareness of the sacred teachings of the Supremely Enlightened Buddha, within Sri Lanka and throughout the world. The main attractions are spread throughout five caves, which are intricately designed with carvings, statues and paintings depicting the life of Gautama Buddha. The dead body of the Netherlands national Buddhist monk was found on December 08, 2020, from a lagoon in Rathgama in Galle district of Sri Lanka. In the mid 18th century the higher ordination of Buddhist monks known as upasampada, which was defunct at the time, was revived with the help of Thai Buddhist monks on the initiatives taken by Weliwita Sri Saranankara Thero during the reign of King Kirthi Sri Rajasinghe. Enormou… The different sects of the Sri Lankan Buddhist clergy are referred to as Nikayas, and three main Nikayas are: After travelling to India, he established the Maha Bodhi Society in 1891 whose goal was to revive Buddhism in India, and restore the ancient Buddhist shrines at Bodh Gaya, Sarnath and Kushinara. Buddhagosa was asked to go to Sri Lanka and ‘render the Sinhala texts into Magadhi’ in order to make the Sinhala texts accessible to the whole Buddhist world. Welcome to the official website of 'The Buddhist' the Premier Buddhist Television Channel in Sri Lanka. It is believed that Mahinda Thero, the son of Emperor Ashoka of India introduced Buddhism to the island. The 7th-century pilgrim Xuanzang first learned for several years at Nalanda and then intended to go to Sri Lanka to seek out further instruction. Napana Premasiri Thera was held at Bandaranaike National School in Warapitiya, Kundasale, under state patronage on Nov. 22. In 1866, a charismatic young monk named Mohottivatte Gunananda (1823-1890) challenged the Christian missionaries to a great debate. From the 5th century to the eleventh century, the island of Sri Lanka saw continuous warfare between local kings, pretenders and foreign invaders such as the South Indian Chola and Pandyan dynasties. By then the Buddha’s dispensation was well established in a considerable area of India with vast numbers of… Buddhist & Pali University of Sri Lanka. They also always preferred Christians in government administration. Since independence, Buddhism has continued to thrive on the island. However, traditions and basic iconography, including an image of Amitābha on his crown, identify Nātha as Avalokiteśvara. Then three remarkable men turned this state of affairs on its head. Mahayana used Sanskrit as the medium of communication. Any monk caught wearing a saffron robe was executed.  The monks of these two traditions were then defrocked and given the choice of either returning to the laity permanently or attempting reordination under the Maha Viharaya tradition as sāmaṇeras. , In 1813 the American Ceylon Mission (Protestant) was established in Jaffna. Tamils must realise this. Seller assumes all responsibility for this listing. Then the pilgrim discussed some Yoga texts with them and found that their explanations could not excel those given to him by Śīlabhadra at Nālandā.. 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